Iodine and the Brain

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  1. Key points:
  2. Iodine and Adult IQ meta-analysis -
  3. Thyroid hormones, iodine and the brain—an important concern
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Ojemann, T. Park, M. Dedov, T. Zenkova, G. Belichenko and I. Ehirim, D. Kerr and A. Garcia-Centeno, J. Suarez-Llanos, E. FernandezFernandez, V. Andia-Melero, P. Sanchez and A. Goswami, N. Tandon, R. Sharma and N. Kroese, A. Grootendorst and L. Lee, H. Hsu, H. Lai and S. Passeri, A. Tufano, M. Locatelli, A. Lania, B. Ambrosi and S.

Shogan and M. Young, K. Kattner and K. Sengupta, U. Sinha, K. Sinha Roy and S. Dutta, I. Maisnam, S. Ghosh, P. Mukhopadhyay, S. Mukhopadhyay and S. Atchison, P. Lee and A. Agrawal and S. Akinci, K.

Key points:

Sarac, S. Gungor, I. Mungan and O. Alves, M. Eldson, H. Engle, J. Sheldon and W. Blasi, R. Longaretta, C. Giovanettoni, C. Balodi, S. Pontesilli, C. Vigone, et al. Desai, R. Mehta, C. Choksi and M. Graber, H. Lau and S. Gupta, V. Bhatia, H. Poptani and R. Mauceri, M. Ruggieri, V. Pavone, R. Rizzo and G. Fujiwara, K.

Iodine and Adult IQ meta-analysis -

Fujikura, K. Okuhara, J. Tsubaki, M. Fukushi, K. Fujita, et al. Tajima, F. Fujiwara, A. Sudo, S. Saito and K. Wheeler, K. Willoughby, M. McAndrews and J. Wheeler, M. McAndrews, E. Sheard and J. Tai, C. Lian, S. Qi, E. Heinz and G. Zhu, Z. Wang, D. Zhang, Z. Pan, S. He, X. Hu, et al. Hasegawa, I. Analysis of the reasons for success and lack of success indicated the need for a multidisciplinary approach, including assessment, communication, planning, political support, monitoring and evaluation.

The effect of IDD had to be expressed in social terms, i. A multidisciplinary model for a national program was developed and has been subsequently adopted in many countries Hetzel In , the establishment of an International Consultative Group NGO was recommended as a necessary step to provide multidisciplinary expertise for the international agencies and national governments with major IDD problems for the development of a more active IDD control program.

Subsequently, in , the goal of elimination was accepted by the World Summit for Children at the UN. Since that time, the policy of Universal Salt Iodization USI was adopted and has proved remarkably successful throughout all regions of the world. This represents an increase of million since with protection of 12 million children WHO Fact Sheet Achievement of the goal would eliminate an ancient scourge of mankind; the descriptions of goiter date back to BC in the ancient literature of India and China and cretinism to the Middle Ages Hetzel and Pandav Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.

It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents.

Iodine deficiency as a cause of fetal brain damage. Mechanism of the effect of iodine deficiency on fetal brain development. Quantitative estimates of the effect of iodine deficiency on brain function at the population level. Cognitive development in iodine-deficient populations. Bridging the knowledge application gap: development of a global program for the elimination of brain damage due to iodine deficiency. Iodine and Neuropsychological Development Basil S.

Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. ABSTRACT The establishment of the essential link among iodine deficiency, thyroid function and brain development has emerged from a fascinating combination of clinical, epidemiologic and experimental studies.

Bleichrodt and Born A metaanalysis of research on iodine and its relationship to cognitive development. Google Preview. Burgi et al Iodine deficiency diseases in Switzerland one hundred years after Kocher's survey: a historical review with some new prevalence data.

Delange Search ADS. Hetzel Hetzel and Mano A review of experimental studies of iodine deficiency during fetal development. Hetzel and Pandav During pregnancy, there is an increased need for maternal thyroid hormone production. Before weeks of gestation, the foetus is not able to produce its own T3 and T4, and is completely reliant on maternal thyroid hormones that cross the placenta.

Several changes to thyroid physiology occur to accommodate this increased demand and, as iodine is vital to the production of thyroid hormones, they rely on a sufficient intake of iodine. Because of this increased need for iodine during pregnancy, women may be at risk of developing mild iodine deficiency if their intake is not increased, even if it was sufficient before the pregnancy began. Although the foetus still relies on maternal thyroid hormones after the onset of its own thyroid hormone production, the first few weeks of pregnancy may be the most sensitive to a deficiency.

Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in several neurodevelopmental processes, including neurogenesis, cell migration, synaptogenesis and the differentiation of neuronal and glial cells. A deficiency in early pregnancy can disrupt neural proliferation, alter cell migration, and lead to changes in the structure of the brain.

Thyroid hormones, iodine and the brain—an important concern

Evidence suggests that different brain regions are affected according to the stage of pregnancy that the thyroid hormone deficiency occurs. Basal ganglia, for example, are affected by early thyroid deficiency, while late thyroid dysfunction can influence cerebellar and hippocampal development. The consequences of hypothyroxinaemia depend on its timing and severity, and it is thought that neurological cretinism may be a result of severe hypothyroxinaemia in early pregnancy.

Seawater is a major source of iodine in the geochemical cycle. Seaweeds and phytoplankton release iodine-containing organic gases into the atmosphere, and these migrate inland where they are deposited in precipitation. This deposited iodine may subsequently be re-volatilised and deposited even further inland. Thus, coastal regions tend to be more iodine-rich, while levels tend to decrease the further inland you go. But just living by the coast does not guarantee a sufficient iodine status - the availability of iodine from the soil also affects how much can be taken up by plants, the animals that feed on these plants, and the humans using these plants and animals as sources of food.


Because of this uneven distribution, communities living in inland areas such as central Africa and Asia, and depending on locally produced food, may be more at risk of developing iodine deficiency disorders. Others at risk include those living in areas subject to frequent flooding and in mountainous regions such as the Himalayas, European Alps and Andes, where iodine may be washed away by rainwater and glaciation.

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For others still, the iodine status of their surrounding environment holds less importance.